Do emotions influence the intention of attending a sporting event? Differences by gender

Manuel Alonso-Dos-Santos, Carlos Pérez-Campos

Abstract


According to marketing literature, quality and satisfaction are strong predictors of the intention of attending sporting events, yet not much has been written despite the relevance of emotions in the prediction of behaviour. This paper provides a new point of view because it explores the influence of emotions on satisfaction, including the moderating effect of gender. For the research, 637 interviews were conducted in an international event of athletism. The method of consistent partial least squares was employed in order to validate scales and subsequently test hypotheses, all of which were supported. The outcome of the research proves that emotions and quality are predictors of both satisfaction and intention of attendance. As for gender, there were differences in the relation  activation - satisfaction, not supported in the female segment. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting strategies for segmented communication

Keywords


Satisfacción; evento deportivo; asistencia; género.

Full Text:

PDF (Español)

References


Alonso-Dos-Santos, M. (Ed.). (2014). Strategies in Sports Marketing: Technologies and Emerging Trends. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Alonso-Dos-Santos, M., Vveinhardt, J., Calabuig-Moreno, F., y Montoro-Ríos, F. (2016). Involvement and image transfer in sports sponsorship. Engineering Economics, 27(1), 78–89.

Añó, V. (2003). Organización y gestión de actividades deportivas: Los grandes eventos. Barcelona, Spain: INDE.

Añó, V., Calabuig, F., y Parra, D. (2012). Impacto social de un gran evento deportivo: el Gran Premio de Europa de Fórmula 1. Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte, 7(19), 53–65.

Babakus, E., y Boller, G. W. (1992). An empirical assessment of the SERVQUAL scale. Journal of Business Research, 24(3), 253–268. http://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(92)90022-4

Barclay, D., Higgins, C., y Thompson, R. (1995). The partial least squares (PLS) approach to causal modeling: Personal computer adoption and use as an illustration. Technology Studies, 2(2), 285–309.

Barroso Castro, M. C., Cepeda Carrión, G. A., y Roldán Salgueiro, J. L. (2007). Investigar en economía de la empresa: ¿Partial least squares o modelos basados en la covarianza? En El comportamiento de la empresa ante entornos dinámicos (Vol. 1, p. 63). Retrieved from http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2480048

Bigné, J. E., Andreu, L., y Gnoth, J. (2005). The theme park experience: An analysis of pleasure, arousal and satisfaction. Tourism Management, 26(6), 833–844. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.05.006

Bodet, G., y Lacassagne, M. F. (2012). International place branding through sporting events: a British perspective of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(4), 357–374. http://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2012.693114

Calabuig, F., y Crespo, J. (2009). Uso del método Delphi para la elaboración de una medida de la calidad percibida de los espectadores de eventos deportivos. Retos: Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, (15), 21–25.

Calabuig, F., Prado-Gascó, V., Crespo Hervás, J., Núñez-Pomar, J., y Añó, V. (2015). Spectator emotions: Effects on quality, satisfaction, value, and future intentions. Journal of Business Research, 68(7), 1445–1449. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.031

Calabuig, F., Prado-Gascó, V., Crespo, J., Núñez-Pomar, J., y Añó, V. (2016). Predicting future intentions of basketball spectators using SEM and fsQCA. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1396–1400. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.114

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. En G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (pp. 295–336). New Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chin, W. W., y Dibbern, J. (2010). An introduction to a permutation based procedure for multi-group PLS analysis: Results of tests of differences on simulated data and a cross cultural analysis of the sourcing of information system services between Germany and the USA. En E. V. Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, y H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares. Berlin, Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Chon, K. S., y Hudson, S. (2002). Sport and adventure tourism. New York, USA: Routledge.

Crespo, J., Pérez-Campos, C., y Mundina, J. (2012). Calidad de servicio percibida por los espectadores de fútbol. Análisis de diferencias entre grupos. Journal of Sports Economics & Management, 2(1), 4-15.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555

Cronin, J. J., Brady, M. K., y Hult, G. T. M. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 193–218. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00028-2

Dijkstra, T. K. (2014). PLS’ Janus Face – Response to Professor Rigdon’s “Rethinking Partial Least Squares Modeling: In Praise of Simple Methods.” Long Range Planning, 47(3), 146–153. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2014.02.004

Dijkstra, T. K., y Henseler, J. (2015). Consistent and asymptotically normal PLS estimators for linear structural equations. Computational Statistics y Data Analysis, 81, 10–23. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.csda.2014.07.008

Eccles, J. S., y Fredricks, J. A. (2005). Family socialization, gender, and sport motivation and involvement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27(1), 3–31.

Falk, R. F., y Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. Ohio, USA: The University of Akron.

Fornell, C., y Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3151312

Geisser, S. (1975). The predictive sample reuse method with applications. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 70(350), 320–328.

Greenwell, T. C., Fink, J. S., y Pastore, D. L. (2002). Assessing the influence of the physical sports facility on customer satisfaction within the context of the service experience. Sport Management Review, 5(2), 129–148.

Hair, J. F., Marko Sarstedt, Lucas Hopkins, y Volker G. Kuppelwieser. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). European Business Review, 26(2), 106–121. http://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., … Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about PLS comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182–209. http://doi.org/10.1177/1094428114526928

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., y Sarstedt, M. (2014). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8

Hightower Jr, R., Brady, M. K., y Baker, T. L. (2002). Investigating the role of the physical environment in hedonic service consumption: an exploratory study of sporting events. Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 697–707. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(00)00211-3

Howat, G., y Assaker, G. (2013). The hierarchical effects of perceived quality on perceived value, satisfaction, and loyalty: Empirical results from public, outdoor aquatic centres in Australia. Sport Management Review, 16(3), 268–284. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2012.10.001

Jiang, Y., y Wang, C. L. (2006). The impact of affect on service quality and satisfaction: The moderation of service contexts. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(4), 211–218. http://doi.org/10.1108/08876040610674562

Kane, M. J., LaVoi, N. M., y Fink, J. S. (2013). Exploring elite female athletes’ interpretations of sport media images: A window into the construction of social identity and “‘selling sex’” in women’s sports. Communication & Sport (2013). http://doi.org/10.1177/2167479512473585

Kaplanidou, K., y Gibson, H. J. (2010). Predicting behavioral intentions of active event sport rourists: The case of a small-scale recurring sports event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(2), 163–179. http://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2010.498261

Kinney, L., McDaniel, S. R., y DeGaris, L. (2008). Demographic and psychographic variables predicting NASCAR sponsor brand recall. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 9(3), 169–179.

Lee, J.-H., Kim, H.-D., Ko, Y. J., y Sagas, M. (2011). The influence of service quality on satisfaction and intention: A gender segmentation strategy. Sport Management Review, 14(1), 54–63. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2010.02.002

Liébana-Cabanillas, F., Sánchez-Fernández, J., y Muñoz-Leiva, F. (2014). Role of gender on acceptance of mobile payment. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(2), 220–240. http://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-03-2013-0137

Lin, I. Y., y Worthley, R. (2012). Servicescape moderation on personality traits, emotions, satisfaction, and behaviors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 31–42. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.05.009

Martínez, L., y Martínez, J. A. (2007). Consumer satisfaction with a periodic reoccurring sport event and the moderating effect of motivations. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16(2), 70–81.

Mattila, A. S., y Wirtz, J. (2000). The role of preconsumption affectin postpurchase evaluation of services. Psychology and Marketing, 17(7), 587–605.

McMahan, C., Hovland, R., y McMillan, S. (2009). Online marketing communications: Exploring online consumer behavior by examining gender differences and interactivity within internet advertising. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10(1), 61–76.

Menefee, W. C., y Casper, J. M. (2011). Professional basketball fans in China: A comparison of National Basketball Association and Chinese Basketball Association team identification. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 9(3/4), 185–200.

Muñiz, C., Rodríguez, P., y Suárez, M. J. (2014). Sports and cultural habits by gender: An application using count data models. Economic Modelling, 36, 288–297. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2013.09.053

Murray, D., y Howat, G. (2002). The relationships among service quality, value, satisfaction, and future intentions of customers at an australian sports and leisure centre. Sport Management Review, 5(1), 25–43.

Nunnally, J. C., y Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Oliver, R. L. (1996). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York, USA: Mcgraw-Hill College.

Osti, L., Disegna, M., y Brida, J. G. (2012). Repeat visits and intentions to revisit a sporting event and its nearby destinations. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(1), 31–42. http://doi.org/10.1177/1356766711428803

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49, 41-50.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., y Malhotra, A. (2005). E-S-Qual: A multiple-item scale for assessing electronic service quality. Journal of Service Research, 7(3), 213–233.

Pedragosa, V., Biscaia, R. y Correia, A. (2015). The role of emotions on consumers’ satisfaction within the fitness context. Motriz, 21, 116-124.

Petter, S., Straub, D., y Rai, A. (2007). Specifying formative constructs in information systems research. MIS Quarterly, 31(4), 623–656.

Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1161–1178. http://doi.org/10.1037/h0077714

Sarstedt, M., Henseler, J., y Ringle, C. M. (2011). Multigroup analysis in partial least squares (PLS) rath modeling: Alternative methods and empirical results. Advances in International Marketing, 10(22), 195–218.

Silla, A., Calabuig, F., y Añó, V. (2014). Emociones, satisfacción e intenciones futuras de los usuarios de actividades dirigidas de un centro deportivo. Journal of Sports Economics & Management, 4(1), 22-38.

Stone, M. (1974). Cross-validatory choice and assessment of statistical predictions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 36(2), 111–147. http://doi.org/10.2307/2984809

Van Leeuwen, L., Quick, S., y Daniel, K. (2002). The sport spectator satisfaction model: A conceptual framework for understanding the satisfaction of spectators. Sport Management Review, 5(2), 99–128.

Wann, D. L., Grieve, F. G., Zapalac, R. K., y Pease, D. G. (2008). Motivational profiles of sport fans of different sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(1), 6–19.

Wann, D. L., Waddill, P. J., y Dunham, M. D. (2004). Using sex and gender role orientation to predict level of sport fandom. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27(4), 367–377.

Westbrook, R. A. (1987). Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(3), 258. http://doi.org/10.2307/3151636

Wirtz, J., y Bateson, J. E. G. (1999). Consumer satisfaction with services: Integrating the environment perspective in services marketing into the traditional disconfirmation paradigm. Journal of Business Research, 44(1), 55–66. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(97)00178-1

Wirtz, J., Mattila, A. S., y Tan, R. L. P. (2000). The moderating role of target-arousal on the impact of affect on satisfaction—an examination in the context of service experiences. Journal of Retailing, 76(3), 347–365.

Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., y Malhotra, A. (2002). Service quality delivery through Web sites: A critical review of extant knowledge. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(4), 362.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.